The yellow topaz and citrine are often confused, and even misidentified by amateur gem enthusiasts. Although these two gemstones share the coveted spot as November’s birthstone, they are different gems. Each gemstone has different origins that derive from a completely different crystal system, where they inherit different molecular, optical and physical properties. Yellow citrine is a quartz crystal that is formed out of silicon dioxide. Topaz is a fluoro-silicate of aluminum.
Pearls are the only gems on earth that form inside a living creature. Both saltwater and freshwater pearls form inside mollusks – such as oysters, clams, mussels and abalone. A pearl forms when an irritant (like a parasite, or a tiny piece of coral) lodges itself within a mollusk’s mantle tissue. It gets so deep inside the shell the mollusk cannot expel it.
This is a list of select gems ordered from hardest to softest according to Mohs hardness scale. Name Hardness Name Hardness Diamond 10 Hypersthene 5 – 6 Synth. Moissanite 9½ Ilmenite 5 – 6 Ruby 9 Lapis Lazuli 5 – 6 Sapphire 9 Lazulite 5 – 6 Alexandrite 8½ Nepheline 5 – 6 Chrysoberyll 8½ Neptunite 5 – 6 Holtite…
Schnauzer pendant, cuff links, pin, and dog tag pendant. Hand carved by Sassan, artist goldsmith from Toronto, Canada.
Pug pendant, cuff links, pin, and dog tag pendant. Hand carved by Sassan, artist goldsmith from Toronto, Canada.